Animation 9.2: Electron Shells and Periodic Trends

Ionization energy is the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom or ion. The ionization energy is a measure of how tightly bound an electron is to a nucleus. The animation reports the ionization energy of the first electron removed for the first eleven atoms. As we proceed from left to right across a periodic row, electrons become more and more tightly bound. However, as a new row begins, the ionization energy drops drastically compared to the previous element. .Elements with comparatively large ionization energies, such as helium and neon, are said to have a filled valence shell. A filled valence shell has a certain chemical stability, not only for elements in the last column of the periodic chart, the noble gases, but for any element that has the same number of electrons as a noble gas.

 

Questions

  1. The halogens tend to form single bonds, gaining only one electron. Based on the information provided in the animation, why is that?
  2. .
  3. Elements in the first column, the alkali metals, always donate one (but only one) electron. Based on the information provided in the animation, why is that?
  4. How many bonds would you expect carbon to form?
RETURN TO ANIMATIONS